Monday, March 27, 2023

Dvara Analysis Weblog | Making UPI funds extra customer-centric for new-to-UPI customers

By Dvara Analysis and Centre for Social and Behavioural Change, Ashoka College

The variety of digital transactions happening in in India is rising steadily [1]. The Reserve Financial institution of India estimates 26 crore digital funds are processed every single day [2]. Round one-third of Indian households, together with 1 / 4 of households within the poorest 40% bracket appear to be making these digital funds [3]. UPI funds account for nearly two-thirds of those 26 crore digital funds processed every day [4]. But, the Nationwide Funds Company of India (NPCI) anticipates a large “suppressed demand” the place individuals are prepared however will not be in a position to make use of digital funds [5]. Dvara Analysis’s work in adjoining contexts of womens’ use of cell phone and the work of different students in jurisdictions just like India recommend that this suppressed demand could be attributed to quite a lot of limitations like, functionality gaps, social norms, problem in utilizing digital providers, and perceptions of threat [6][7]. Nonetheless, literature analyzing limitations that new-to-tech customers face in accessing digital funds by UPI is scant.

With this goal in thoughts, Dvara Analysis along with the Centre for Social and Behavioural Change (CSBC) undertook a examine to –

  1. Perceive the challenges new-to-UPI customers[i] face when utilizing UPI-based digital fee apps (DPAs); and their perceptions, behaviour, and data in regard to DPAs.
  2. Synthesise design rules that may make these DPAs intuitive and reliable for new-to-UPI customers.  
  3. Incorporate safeguards in DPAs that may mitigate dangers to customers and minimise limitations because of functionality gaps.

This examine was performed by a donation from WhatsApp Pay. All materials created beneath this examine is made obtainable as a public good, accessible by this page

Methodology and Pattern

This examine includes three levels (i) literature evaluation, (ii) quantitative examine to grasp customers’ perceptions of DPAsand, (iii)  lab-in-the-field experiment to grasp their lived expertise of interfacing with DPAs.

Stage 1: Related literature from India and nations with comparable contexts was reviewed. The insights from this literature evaluation had been used to tell the quantitative examine within the stage 2. The findings from this stage have been summarised on this blog-post.

Stage 2: A quantitative survey was administered amongst 262 respondents in Ernakulam/Kochi and Wayanad (excessive and low digital inclusion districts, respectively) in Kerala (excessive digital inclusion state) and Gautam Buddha Nagar and Sitapur (excessive and low digital inclusion districts, respectively) in Uttar Pradesh (low digital inclusion state) (Determine 1). The respondents had been distributed throughout three focus teams – girls, migrant staff, and gig staff (conventional and digital gig staff).

Determine 1: Pattern traits of the Research | Illustration: Centre for Social and Behavioural Change

Pattern demographics by respondent teams

This survey helped perceive (i) customers’ experiences with utilizing DPAs, and (ii) the impact of demographic variables (Determine 1) and psychological variables (Determine 2) on customers’ adoption and utilization of DPAs.

Determine 2: Psychological variables examined within the Research.

Stage 3:  In-depth qualitative interviews had been performed with 25 respondents in Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, from the bigger pattern of 262 respondents. These 25 respondents had been chosen in a means that would assist higher perceive customers’ experiences with totally different DPAs (Google Pay, PayTM, PhonePe, and WhatsApp Pay). Customers’ experiences with utilizing a DPA that they don’t normally use had been noticed by a Usability Testing train.[ii] Stakeholder conversations had been additionally undertaken with buyer safety specialists and a few DPA representatives to create a rounded view of pathways to designing buyer centric DPAs. The findings from every stage of the examine will probably be printed on our page over a collection of posts. The quantitative dataset (anonymised) will probably be made obtainable on request.

Go to our page for extra data.

[i] ‘New-to-UPI’ customers confer with customers who wish to use UPI however are unable to because of quite a lot of elements like low literacy, low digital literacy, and low earnings. It doesn’t embody customers who’re unable to make use of UPI because of structural limitations like lack of ICT connectivity, smartphone availability and so forth.

[ii] The findings from this train don’t establish particular DPAs that had been used for usability testing in every interview in Stage 3.

Cite this weblog:


Dvara Analysis and Centre for Social and Behavioural Change, A. U. (2022). Making UPI funds extra customer-centric for new-to-UPI customers. Retrieved from Dvara Analysis.


Dvara Analysis and Centre for Social and Behavioural Change, Ashoka College. “Making UPI funds extra customer-centric for new-to-UPI customers.” 2022. Dvara Analysis.


Dvara Analysis and Centre for Social and Behavioural Change, Ashoka College. 2022. “Making UPI funds extra customer-centric for new-to-UPI customers.” Dvara Analysis.

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